TATA GROUP- HISTORY, COMPANIES AND PHILOSOPHY
TATA GROUP- HISTORY, COMPANIES AND PHILOSOPHY
Puja Bhardwaj || The CEO Magazine
Founded in 1868, the Tata Group of Companies is one of India’s oldest business empires. It is operating in more than 100 countries across six continents with 2,46,000 employees. The company has a shareholder base of over two million and market capitalization of over $57.7 billion. Headquartered in Mumbai, Tata Group is operating several primary business sectors including chemicals, consumer products, energy information systems, materials, services, etc.
The company’s mission is ‘To bring enhancement in the quality of life in the communities’, it is serving on global level with long-term stakeholder value creation based on Leadership with Trust. Tata Sons are the principal investor and promoter of the holding companies. Sixty-six percent of the equity share capital of Tata Sons is held by philanthropic trusts that support education, livelihood generation, health, art, and culture.
Each Tata company or enterprise operates independently under the guidance and supervision of its board of directors. There are 28 publicly-listed Tata enterprises with a combined market capitalization of about $145.3 billion (as on March 31, 2018).
The trusts also support non-government organizations working in the areas of education, healthcare, and livelihoods. It also supports different types of social welfare initiatives.
The major competitors of the company include Aditya Birla Group, Mahindra and Reliance. In 2017-18, the revenue of Tata companies was $110.7 billion.
Ratan N Tata: Ratan N Tata was the Chairman and one of the two promoter holding companies of the Tata Group. He had been in his position from 1991 to 2012. He was also leading the major companies of Tata Group like Tata Steel, TCs, Tata Motors, Indian Hotels and more.
Natarajan Chandrasekaran: Natarajan Chandrasekaran is the Chairman and additional director of the company. He joined the board of Tata Sons in October 2016 and was appointed as the company chairperson in 2017. He also chairs the Boards of the different group operating companies like Tata Steel, Indian Hotels Company Limited, etc.
In board of directors, the company has N Chandrasekaran, Farida Khambata, Venu Srinivasan, Ajay Piramal, Dr Ralf Speth, Bhaskar Bhat, Harish Manwani, and Saurabh Awarwal.
The Management Team has N Chandrasekaran, Saurabh Awarwal, Banmali Agarwala, Aarthi Subramanian, Shuva Mandal, and Harish Bhat.
HISTORY OF TATA GROUP
An entrepreneur and philanthropist, Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata had established Tata Group as a private trading firm in 1868. In 1902, the group incorporated the Indian Hotels Company to commission the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower; it was the first luxury hotel in the country. In 1904, Jamsetji died and his son, Sir Dorab Tata took over as chair of the company. Under the guidance and leadership of Dorab, the group grew quickly, venturing into different industry segments like steel (1907), electricity (1910), education (1911), consumer goods (1917), and aviation (1932).
In 1932, when Dorab died, Sir Nowroji Saklatwala took the position. After six years, Jahangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata became the group’s chair. He took the company’s expansion on many new sectors including chemicals (1939), cosmetics (1952), marketing, engineering and manufacturing (1954), tea (1962) and software services (1968).
In 1945, Tata Group added another start in their sky by establishing Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company; it was renamed as Tata Motors in the year 2003. This company is involved in manufacturing engineering and locomotive products.
In 1991, Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (JRD Tata) was succeeded by his nephew, Ratan Tata. Ratan Tata aggressively sought to expand the company and increasingly he focussed on taking the business on the global level. The group acquired London-based Tetley Tea in 2000 and purchased the truck-manufacturing operations of South Korea’s Daewoo Motors in 2004. To create the insurance company Tata-AIG in 2001, the group partnered with American International Group, Inc.
In 2007, Tata Group acquired the giant Anglo-Dutch steel manufacturer Corus Group and completed the biggest corporate takeover by an Indian company. Next year, it ventured into the automotive industry. On January 10, 2008, Tata Motors accomplished one more milestone when it launched the Nano, a tiny, rear-engine, pod-shaped vehicle. In July 2009, the first Nano hit the road in India.
In 2008, Tata Group bought the elite British brands Jaguar and Land Rover from the Ford Motor Company. In 2012, Ratan Tata got retirement and Cyrus Mistry took the position. But in October 2016, Mistry was abruptly dismissed as chairman due to the disagreements with members of the Tata Family regarding business strategy. Again, Ratan came to his position on an interim basis. In January 2017, Natarajan Chandrasekaran was appointed to the position and Ratan Tata’s second stint as chairman came to end.
In September 2017, the Tata Group announced that it will merge its European steelmaking operations with German steelmaker, ThyssenKrupp. In 2018, the deal was finalized, making Europe’s second-biggest steel company; ArcelorMittal is on the first position.
COMPANIES OF TATA GROUP
Tata Sons Limited is the holding company of the Tata Group and holds the bulk of shareholding in these companies. Tata Sons Ltd is the owner of the Tata name and Tata trademark that are registered in India and many other countries.
The major companies under the Tata Group are Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Chemicals, Tata Global Beverages, Titan, Tata Capital, Tata Power, Tata Advanced Systems, Indian Hotels, and Tata Communications.
Tata is the most important subsidiary of Tata Group; it was founded by Jamsetji Tata and established by Dorabji Tata on 26 August 1907. Headquartered in Kolkata, Tata Steel is an Indian Multinational steel-manufacturing company. It is among the leading steel-making companies in the International market with annual crude steel deliveries of 27.5 million tonnes. It operates in a total of 26 countries, with key operations in India, the UK, and the Netherlands. It has over 80, 500 employees and the company deals in Iron, Soft Iron, Cast Iron, Alloy, etc.
Founded in 1945, as a locomotive manufacturer, Tata Motors is today a multinational automotive manufacturing company. Its headquarter is in Mumbai, and it deals in passenger cars, vans, trucks, sports cars, military vehicles and construction types of equipment. Apart from India, Tata Motors has vehicle assembly operations in different part of the world including Britain, South Korea, Spain, South Africa, and Thailand. After the foundation, Tata Motors manufactured its first commercial vehicle in 1954 in collaboration with Daimler-Benz. In 1988, it entered the passenger vehicle market.
TATA CONSULTANCY SERVICES
Tata Consultancy Services or TCS is the largest Indian company by market capitalization. It is an Indian multinational information technology service and consulting company. TCS operates in 149 locations across 46 countries with headquarter in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Present-day, it is placed among the most valuable IT services brands worldwide. TCS holds 67 subsidiaries. They are jointly offering a wide assortment of information technology-based products and services like business process outsourcing, capacity planning, hardware sizing, payment processing, software management, consulting, enterprise software, technology education services, and application development.
An Indian global company focused on chemicals, crop nutrition, and consumer products, Tata Chemicals Limited is a subsidiary of Tata Group conglomerate. It initiated its journey in 1939 from Mithapur, Gujarat. Today, it has become the third-largest producer of soda ask globally with manufacturing units in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. Its R&D center is located in Pune, Maharashtra. The product range of the company include Chemicals, spices, fertilizers, consumer products, bio fuels, pulses, cement, fresh product, nutritional solutions, water purifier, etc.
TATA GLOBAL BEVERAGES
The second-largest tea brand in the world, TGB is one of the important subsidiaries of India. It has evolved from a domestic plantation business into an international brand-focused organization with a wide portfolio of brands. The newly launched brands of the company are Tata Tea Masala, Tetley Super Green Tea and Tata Tea Teaveda. The company has equal partnership joint ventures with Starbucks for cafes and Pepsico for liquid beverages in the country. In 2017, it crossed the 100-store mission for Starbucks, a Tata alliance.
Titan is another important part of the Tata Group. It is one of the leading lifestyle companies in the country. It deals in Jewellery, watches, eyewear categories with various successful brands. One of its brands, the Tanishq brand of jewellery is one of the most reputed lifestyle brands in India. Titan operates the eyewear business with Titan eye plus stores. Some other famous brands of the company include Sonata, Raaga, and Fastrack. It also involved in perfume business with Skinn and introduces Taneira, a destination for fine silk sarees.
One of the largest NBFCs of the country and a subsidiary of Tata Group, Tata Capital is a one-stop financial solution partner. It caters to the diverse financial requirements of corporate, institutional and retail customers. The company has over 100 branches and it’s headquarter is in Mumbai. It deals with consumer loans, commercial finance, infrastructure finance, etc. The company is registered with RBI as a Systematically Important Deposit Accepting NBFC.
Tata Power is an Indian electric unity company with a core business to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity. It is the Largest Integrated Power Company and has pioneered technology adoption in the utility sector. It has operations in India, Singapore, Indonesia, South Africa, and Bhutan. Tata Power with its subsidiaries and joint entities hold 10857 MW of generation capacity where 32% comes from clean sources. The company’s core philosophy is sustainability and is leading the industry in green solutions for the community. The Poolavadi wind power project by Tata Power is located in Tamil Nadu with a power generation capacity of 99 MW.
TATA ADVANCED SYSTEMS
A well-established manufacturing unit of Tata Group, Tata Advanced Systems is becoming the partner of choice for global aerospace and defence companies. It has won the contract for the first private-sector military radar production of India for the Ministry of Defence. It deals in six major areas including UAVs, missiles, radars, aerospace, and homeland security.
The founder of the Tata Group, Jamsetji took the foundation of the first hotel of India, the Taj Mahal Palace in Mumbai. It has set a benchmark for fine living with exquisite refinement, warmth, and inventiveness. The company has a portfolio of 170 hotels in over eight locations in 12 countries. The company has greatly enhanced domestic business through offline and online channels. It leveraged a partnership with Tata SIA Airlines, American Express, Visa and MasterCard.
Strengthening the today’s fast-growing digital economy, Tata Communication has become the leading global digital infrastructure provider. It offers integrated, globally managed services including network, cloud, mobility, Internet of Things services and collaboration. Tata Communication carries over 30% of the world’s internet routes and connects businesses to 60$ of the world’s cloud giants and 4 out of 5 mobile subscribers.
Tata Group of Companies has always been a very value-driven organization. And these values have guided them to gain success over the years. The five core values, which define Tata Sons Ltd, are excellence, integrity, pioneering, responsibility and lastly unity.
Their motto is “Leadership with Trust”. They trust in the long-term value creation of all their global stakeholders.
Cutting-edge innovation, a great focus on quality, sustainable operations and business perfection are the trademarks of the trust the Tata name is best known for.